Colonial Officers in the Anglo-Zulu War 1879

Jan 29, 2018


Contributed by Cameron Simpson

 (Originally Published by the Anglo-Zulu War Historical Research Society 2015)

 

Introduction

If you were to read contemporary accounts from the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879, you would read the occasional words of praise for colonials and sometimes the writer would conjure up an image of Colonial Officers being wild ruffians, deserters from the Royal Navy, broken gentleman and generally undisciplined civilians at odd’s with the British class structure.  The reality is that both comments are factual; there were Colonial Officers that were ruffians and drifted to the wrong side of the law; there were deserters from the Royal Navy, many broken gentlemen and many who with no prior military experienced were converted into officers over night.  Many however became excellent leaders and obtained good results in the field and a few gained distinctions that would make their name in South Africa.

There were approximately 672 Colonial Officers that served at different periods throughout the war in contrast to some 1222 Imperial Officers; thus 35.4% of officers serving under Lieutenant General, Lord Chelmsford C.B. were colonials.[1]  

These Colonial Officers were an undeniable necessity in winning the war against the amaZulu, however in contrast to their regular counterpart the recruiting of colonial officers was exceedingly complex and costly.  Chelmsford and his staff found themselves dealing with some officers serving on six month contracts, Natal Volunteers Officers reluctant to abandon their businesses, Natal Native Contingent (N.N.C.) Officers and Levy Leaders lacking previous military service and again were being drawn away from their businesses and thus creating a skills vacuum among communities, commerce and the civil service.

Despite these challenges, the value many brought to Chelmsford’s Army was an intimate understanding of the local natives they would lead; they understood the language’s, knew how to deal with the South African terrain, keep horses and oxen conditioned. Many of the officers recruited from the Cape, Transvaal and Griqualand West had recent operational experience.[2]

At the conclusion of the Anglo-Zulu War, Colonial Officers would have fought in all actions and battles and along with their British regular counterparts would endure the many campaign hardships, gain distinctions and in some cases build or loose reputations.    Many of these men until the present day have had a shroud of mystery caste over them and are actively being researched by historians some 137 years later.  

 

Roles within the Order of Battle

From the period when Lord Chelmsford was mobilizing an army in November 1878 until the disbandment of the South African Field Force in September 1879, Colonial Officers were employed in all phases of the war in the following military forces and formations:[3]

  1. Natal Volunteers: (Pre-established Natal Volunteer Defence Force),
  2. Natal Mounted Police: (Pre-established Police Force of Natal),
  3. Transvaal Volunteers: (Pre-established Transvaal Volunteer Defence Force),
  4. Imperial Raised Mounted Regiments: (Specially raised formations for military operations in Zululand),
  5. Imperial raised Natal Native Contingents: (Specially raised formations for military operations in Zululand),
  6. Native Levies, Border Guards and Police: (Specially raised formations for defence of the Natal Border during a state of emergency),
  7. Burgher Volunteers: (Specially raised Burgher force from the Utrecht and Vryheid region of the Transvaal),
  8. Town (Laager) Guards and Local Defence Forces: (Specially raised for defensive military operations within Natal during a state of emergency),
  9. Commissariat and Transport Department: (Specially raised to supplement the Imperial Commissariat Department), and
  10. Medical Service: (Civil Surgeons recruited locally to supplement the Army Medical Department).

 

Chelmsford personally classed all colonial officers as ‘civilian’s’[4] which is not a derogatory classification, but simply a factual term he used to differentiate them from the professional regular officers of the British Army.  The pre-established regiments of the Natal Volunteers, Natal Mounted Police (N.M.P.) and Transvaal Volunteers were officered by men who were mostly elected to appointments and thus trusteed and respected community men.  These volunteers were exposed to British Army training and thus adapted easily to working with imperial officers albeit friction was present at times.   The Frontier Light Horse (F.L.H.) being an imperial raised mounted regiment was already established whilst its sister regiment, Baker’s Horse was re-raised having only been disbanded for several weeks.[5] The officers of the F.L.H. were experienced campaigners and had already served under Chelmsford during the Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War (1877-78) and under Lieutenant Colonel Hugh Rowlands V.C., C.B.[6] against the BaPedi in the Eastern Transvaal (1878).

In the Natal Native Contingents, Native Levy’s, Border Guards and even the Commissariat, Chelmsford and his subordinate commanders would struggle to find a balance of officers who knew the local native language, knew the people they commanded and intimately understood the challenges faced by the terrain.  The recruitment of civilians in commissioned officer roles usually meant that they had no military experience and couldn’t be expected to lead without suitable training.   An Imperial Officer who couldn’t speak Zulu and knew nothing of the people he commanded was also found to be unsuitable and likely to fail.[7]   Whilst Chelmsford had a number of Special Service Officers known locally as ‘aasvogels’ and ‘boomvogels’[8]  available to fill critical positions within the colonial formations, a balance was mostly achieved although some regiments were more successfully commanded than others.  During this balancing process the Natal Volunteers had expected that Major John George Dartnell,[9] Officer Commanding the Natal Mounted Police would command them, however Chelmsford appointed Lieutenant Colonel, John Cecil Russell[10] of the 12th (The Prince of Wales’s Royal) Lancers[11] as Officer Commanding, Mounted Troops. This decision was exceedingly unpopular with the men of which the historian of the N.M.P. wrote:

‘Major Dartnell’s men expressed their disinclination to cross the border excepting under their own officer’s command, and they offered to resign in a body. It was only upon Major Dartnell’s strong remonstrance that they agreed to serve under Major Russell, and the former officer was placed on the General’s Staff as the only way out of the difficulty. Inspector Mansel took charge of the police’.[12]      

Of the 672 Colonial Officers who served during the Zulu War, 108 were already appointed in pre-established volunteer formations in Natal and the Transvaal whilst a staggering 564 were required to be appointed in order to staff the command structure of the newly raised local regiments. By the close of the war some 484 individual colonial officers had served with either the N.N.C., Border Guards, Native Levy’s and Wood’s Irregulars.  Where was Chelmsford to obtain these officers from?

 

 Selection of Officers

Chelmsford’s recruiting net was cast throughout Natal, the Transvaal, Griqualand West and the Cape Colony in search of a suitable haul of officer candidates, however Natal at the very seat of the war became a great disappointment to Chelmsford who wrote to Colonel Henry Evelyn Wood V.C., C,B.:[13]

‘I endeavored to obtain European officers in Natal, in order that the natives should have those with them who knew and understood them, but they were not to be found, and I was consequently forced to apply to the old Colony for those who had served under me before’.[14]  

Wood himself in December, 1878 was having difficulties in recruiting for his No4 Column among the local burghers of the Utrecht district of which Sir Theophilus Shepstone K.C.M.G.,[15] Administrator of the Transvaal suggested putting into effect the Transvaal Commando Law (No2 of 1876). Wood replied that he didn’t think that his force would be increased with ‘any pressed Dutch men’. [16]

By December 1878, Chelmsford had identified and recruited the colonial officer class for the first invasion of Zululand; after the disaster at iSandlwana he needed to replace casualties, re-build an army for a second invasion as well as recruit for the Levy’s and Border Guards that provided a protective screen cast along the entire Natal / Zululand border.   Town Guards were also thrown together with Leaders and Sub-Leaders being elected under a paramilitary styled rank structure. 

In the net of Chelmsford’s catch was as group of colonial officers that were drawn from different classes, different degrees of wealth and South African experience.  There were sons of nobility[17], former army and navy officers[18], cashiered officers[19], deserters[20], drifters[21], professional men[22], adventurers, financially broken men, colonial born gentry and men of the working class and former army and navy rankers. Several officers had served previously in the Crimean War[23], Baltic Sea[24], Indian Mutiny[25], Franco-Prussian War[26], in New Zealand against the Maori’s[27] and many in the Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War 1877-78, Griqualand West against the Griqua’s or against the BaPedi chief Sekhukhune[28]. One man, thirty-two year old, Captain John Rutherford Hickson Lumley[29] of Lonsdale’s Mounted Rifles even held the German Iron Cross that was awarded to him when serving as a Captain in the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71). Lieutenant Henry Charles Harford,[30] 77th (The Duke of Cambridge’s) Regiment and Special Service Officer recorded as the 3rd N.N.C. was being formed, the colonial officer types:

‘The European officers and N.C.O.’s had all arrived, and Lonsdale had already told them off to their Battalions… Commandant Hamilton-Browne, “Maori” Browne, as he was called, had the 1st Battalion and Commandant Cooper ‘the 2nd…All were adventurers, and all the very best of fellows, ready to do anything and go anywhere’.[31]

One of the drawbacks in appointing colonial officers was that all volunteers unless being unemployed had personal responsibilities to their families, businesses, employer’s or were in the government service; many men were self employed and with balance sheets to maintain.  Its probable that the difficulties Chelmsford was having in Natal wasn’t through lack of spirit, but men holding full time jobs just couldn’t join at a whim or were already were enrolled in volunteer regiments as other-ranks.  As the Natal Hussars were being mobilized the corps surgeon, Doctor Daniel Birtwell[32] was unable to proceed to the front as he was required to remain in Greytown as the District Surgeon.[33]  Trooper Claude Manning[34] of the Victoria Mounted Rifles had his commission with the N.N.C. cancelled because he was a serving volunteer and was required to mobilize with his enrolled regiment; he later was discharged and was commissioned in the 3rd N.N.C.[35] 

Employed in the Natal Civil Service was Brooke Southwell Greville,[36] an energetic Magistrates Clerk of Newcastle was offered a commission in the N.N.C. however struggled to be released from civil service unless he could find a substitute. Greville was a perfect officer candidate; born in India, he was also a former Lieutenant of the Westmeath Artillery Militia, a former Natal Mounted Policeman and had an understanding on the Zulu language.  Eventually he found a substitute and was appointed to the 2/1st Battalion, N.N.C.[37]   A Zulu Linguist, Philip Doyle[38] had met with Lieutenant Colonel Anthony William Durnford R.E. about a commission in the 1st N.N.C. but couldn’t accept the commission as he couldn’t afford to equip himself.  After iSandlwana, Doyle wrote to the Colonial Secretary stating that he could now serve and was appointed the Interpreter to the 17th (The Duke of Cambridge’s Own) Lancers.[39]

When the Border Guards and Native Levy’s were being raised in February, 1879 to secure the border against possible Zulu incursions, the officer class of this formation was drawn from local residents that knew the people they commanded and like the case of Greville, many men were drawn from the Civil Service.  On 11 January, 1879 the Magistrate of Umsinga, Henry Francis Fynn, expressed to the Colonial Secretary his concerns that his office was being too stretched:

‘In consequence of the difficulty of procuring European Leaders for the Native Reserve defence, I have as a temporary measure given Mr J.L Knight[40] my Clerk up for that purpose, but I find that I cannot get through the business without him, or a clerk in his stead’.[41]

There was initial tension between Chelmsford and the Lieutenant Governor of Natal, Sir Henry Ernest Gascoyne Bulwer K.C.M.G. over the appointments of N.N.C. Officers as Bulwer wished to retain control of them whilst Chelmsford needed to command and make them efficient.[42]  Ultimately all N.N.C. Officers were appointed through a process that required Bulwer and the High Commissioner for South Africa, Sir Henry Bartle Frere G.C.B., G.C.S.I., to approve their appointments whilst Chelmsford had direct commanded over them. In the Cape, Commandant’s Rupert Latrobe Lonsdale,[43] William John Nettleton[44] and Wilhelm Carl Ferdinand Von Linsingen[45] selected potential N.N.C. officers for service in Natal and Zululand[46].  In the case of the 2nd N.N.C. Major Shapland Graves,[47] 3rd Foot (The Buffs) took over command of Von Linsingen’s men in Natal and reviewed their suitability before finally submitted their names for approval on 16 December, 1878.[48]  

 

Operational experiences

Colonial Officers were actively employed in military operations with many gaining notoriety and distinctions whilst some attracted controversy and some made or broke a units reputation.  Whilst the events that culminated in the partial destruction of Number 3 Column are well known, it was during the period (11 – 22 January) that colonial officers of the column were plunged into the fray from the outset.  Captain Daniel Joseph Hayes[49] of the 1/3rd N.N.C. became one of the first officer’s of the war to be Mentioned-in-Despatches for saving the life of a private of the Mounted Infantry when crossing the Buffalo river and into Zululand on 11 January, 1879.

It was the men of the 3rd N.N.C. under Commandant George Hamilton ‘Maori’ Browne[50] that lead the assault at Sirayo’s Homestead on 12 January with several of Browne’s officers gaining instant notoriety in the press; Captain’s Robert Duncombe [51]and Orlando Edward Murray,[52] both of No8 Company, 1/3rd N.N.C. were in the initial rush whilst Captain’s D.J. Hayes and George Massey-Hicks[53] were recorded to have greatly distinguished themselves in the final moments of the fight.[54]  It was Duncombe, a distinguished Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War veteran and fluent in Zulu who during the fight answered the Zulu challenge of why they had come to Zululand with the now famous but inaccurate response ‘By order of the Great White Queen’.[55]  Lieutenant H.C. Harford was reported to have been the most prominent officer in the action for bluffing four Zulus to surrender.[56]  Along with those mentioned, Captain’s Stephen Smith Harber[57] and Samuel Isaac Hulley 1/3rd N.N.C. were recorded in the press for their work on the flanks whilst Scottish born, Lieutenant Thomas Purvis[58] was wounded and evacuated to Rorke’s Drift for medical treatment.  

During the days that followed, Harford was to record that the transport work was difficult and two colonial officers of the N.N.C., Captain Robert Henry Krohn[59] and Lieutenant Thomas Vaines[60] 1/3rd N.N.C. were instrumental in both supervising and sometimes personally driving the contingents oxen-wagon’s themselves; very few imperial officers would have possessed these skill-sets at the time.[61]

By the close of January, many of No3 Columns colonial officers had become battle casualties or had witnessed the events leading up to the Zulu victory at iSandlwana and soon after the British victory at Rorke’s Drift.  The colonial officers participation in these battles is too lengthy and complicated to cover in this paper but there were no fewer than twenty-five Colonial officers killed and several miracle escapes[62].  These officer casualties were keenly felt in Natal, the Cape and even on the Kimberley Diamond Fields of Griqualand West.  Whilst at Utrecht, a colonial Transport Officer, Hendrik Wilhelm ‘Harry’ Struben[63] attending to transport matters recalled that Sir T. Shepstone was in Utrecht when he learnt the news of iSandlwana and the death of his son, Captain George John Palmer Shepstone[64] of the N.N.C. Some natives looked at Shepstone and he replied with express signs of grief ‘Umtwan ami u fele, George ugwazili’ (My child is dead, George is killed); how that must have haunted Shepstone as he was one of Frere’s Imperial supporters in the war against the Zulu.[65]

The 3rd N.N.C. was disbanded on 24th January, as it was believed by their commander, Commandant R.L. Lonsdale that they weren’t prepared to fight any longer.[66]  Several officers of the 3rd N.N.C. had also allegedly deserted and their personal conduct during the action at iSandlwana and Rorke’s Drift remained in serious question in some quarters, even until the present day.[67]  Captain Henry Hallam-Parr,[68] 13th (Prince Albert’s Light Infantry) Regiment, a Staff Officer of No3 Column recorded in a memo dated 15 February, 1879 that the N.N.C. recruits and officers didn’t have enough time to bond together in training and both Natives and Officers were still recruits when in action on 22 January; it ‘was an impossibility’ he recorded for them to be effective. Parr in conclusion recommended that only Imperial Officers were required and no colonial officers or N.C.O’s should be appointed; Parr obviously had very entrenched views of colonial officers abilities to command.[69]  Interestingly and despite the 3rd N.N.C. being disbanded, many former 3rd N.N.C. officers were instrumental in recovering the missing Queens Colour of the 1/24th (2nd Warwickshire Regiment) from the Buffalo River on 4 February.

Moving away from the well-known events of No3 Column, No1 Column under Colonel Charles Knight Pearson,[70] 3rd (The Buffs) Foot was engaged at Nyezane on 22 January of which the Durban Mounted Rifles (D.M.R.), Victoria Mounted Rifles (V.M.R.), Stanger Mounted Rifles and the 2nd N.C.C. participated in this action. It was however the inability of the cape recruited N.N.C. officers to speak Zulu that resulted in them failing to understand the warnings of their men, that they were being drawn into a deadly trap; this resulted in two of the officers being killed and one wounded.[71]  Pearson subsequently became besieged at the Eshowe mission station where Captain Charles Robert St Leger Shervinton[72] of the 2/2nd N.N.C. commanded a troop of Mounted Infantry and was prominent in scouting. On 11 March he saved the life of Private William Brooks, 99th (Duke of Edinburgh’s, Lanarkshire) Regiment attached to the Mounted Infantry when a vedette post was attacked by the Zulu’s. Shervinton was recommended for the Victoria Cross (V.C.) by Pearson and Brooks[73] later wrote in support of the recommendation: ‘I feel confident that my life that day was saved by Captain Shervington’s (sic) gallant conduct and for which I shall feel forever indebted to him’.[74] 

In Colonel Woods No4 Column, the colonial officers were engaged in arduous mounted patrolling operations and fought at Hlobane (28th March) and Khambula (29th March) where they sustained considerable casualties.[75] At Hlobane, there were many acts of gallantry performed by colonial officers however none were awarded the V.C.  In No4 Column there was a significantly high proportion of mounted colonial officers compared with imperial officers, yet of the numerous recorded incidents of gallantry, three VC’s were awarded to imperial officers for the action.  They weren’t completely without mention though, as Lieutenant Colonel Redvers Henry Buller,[76] 60th (Kings Royal Rifle Corps) commanding Wood’s Mounted Troops communicated to Chelmsford that Wood’s Irregulars fought well as did a colonial officer of that regiment,[77] Captain Charles James Hook.[78]  Buller also mentioned in his despatches of 29 March other colonial officers for their gallantry on Hlobane mountain; Commandant Pieter Johannes Raaff[79] of the Transvaal Rangers, Captain’s Henry Cecil Dudgeon D’Arcy,[80] Alfred Edmund Bousfield Blaine,[81] Lieutenant Archibald Metcalfe Smith[82] all of the F.L.H. along with Captain William Dunsterville Wilson,[83] Bakers Horse, Captain Thomas Lorraine White[84] and Lieutenant Barnabas Gerhard Brecher[85] of Wood’s Irregulars. [86]

Following the failed first invasion of Zululand there was a perceived threat of the Zulu’s exploiting their success and invading Natal.  This resulted in towns forming Town Guards and the formation of Native Levy’s that would provide a protective screen along the border.  The colonial officers appointed to these formations were primarily recruited from the local communities and unlike the failed 2nd N.N.C., these officers for the most part understood the language and customs of the men they commanded.  These officers provided a vital service at a critical time and were known as Levy Leaders apposed to a military rank that implied that they were simply a militia or a type of Burgher Force.  In essence they were at the bottom of the military social order and many were in-fact compelled to serve in order to protect their farms and towns that lay in close proximity to Zululand. At least two of these officers, now colonists had previously held imperial commissions; Commandant Gould Arthur Lucas,[87] late 73rd (Black Watch) Foot and Levy Leader, Robert Andrew Woolley[88] late 20th (Lancashire Fusiliers) Foot who had been a Justice of the Peace for Alfred County since 1875. 

In April, the men of the Natal Volunteers had become restless about being in the field for a protracted period and felt they’d been away from their families, employment, farms and businesses too long and in most cases had suffered financial loss.  On 16 April, Captain William Edward Shepstone[89] of the D.M.R. wrote from Potts Spruit[90] stating his men’s grievance whilst four days later, Captain Charles Taylor Saner[91] of the V.M.R.[92] led a petition requesting to be released from active service whilst a Lieutenant William Emery Robarts[93] also of the V.M.R.[94] personally applied for permission to resign.  Both Chelmsford and Bulwer recorded that hey understood the volunteers being dissatisfied and knew they had given up their valuable times but the manner in which Captain Saner communicated the request was not well received and the Colonial Military Secretary of Natal, Lieutenant Colonel Charles Bullen Hugh Mitchell[95] considered Saner’s actions as reprehensible and recommended that he should be sacked.  Bulwer knew the second invasion was coming and supported Chelmsford who ultimately wrote that regulars couldn’t replace them and they were also efficient. 

Colonial Officers took and active part in the second invasion in the now reformed N.N.C., Natal Guides and with Woods Flying column including the actions at Gingindlovu (2 April), Zungeni (5 June), White Mfolozi (3 July), Ulundi (7 July) and during subsequent pacification operations until September. When military operations were concluded, the Natal Volunteers were released as were the specially raised local regiments, however several officers were required to remain on strength in order to wind-up the financial affairs of each unit. One of these officers, Captain Ewan John Christian[96] of the F.L.H. remained on strength of the regiment until March, 1880 in order to close the regiment’s affairs and received an excellent testimonial for his diligent efforts. At least one man, Lieutenant Ernest Augustus Birch[97] of the N.N.C. was glad to be leaving the military and recorded his thoughts when applying to join the Cape Civil Service in January, 1880:  

‘I left for Natal and served as Lieutenant under Commd’t Nettelton and was present at two engagements viz those of Nneyzene, (sic) Jan’y 22nd and Gingiglovo, (sic) April 1st 1879 having had this experience of military life I have come to the conclusion that it is an unsettled one’.[98]

 

 

Discipline

Imperial Officers, both Army and Naval were accustomed to seeing officers forfeit their commissions when cashiered for disciplinary reasons and the colonial officers were no different.  There were several recordable cases of breaches in the good order of military discipline by colonial officers during the Zulu War.   As early as January, 1879 during Major J.G. Dartnell’s reconnaissance from iSandlwana camp towards Mangeni, Lieutenant’s Samuel Avery[99] and Francis James Holcroft[100] both of the 1/3rd N.N.C. became dissatisfied about having to sleep in an emergency bivouac without blankets and food and deserted their men and returned to the camp at iSandlwana.[101]  As fate would have it both men were killed the very next day when the Zulu’s attacked the camp. Had they survived, they undoubtedly would have faced severe disciplinary action.   

Immediately following the disaster at iSandlwana, Captain William Stevenson[102] 2/3rd N.N.C. along with his entire company deserted the Rorke’s Drift garrison that frantically throwing up hasty defences as the Zulu Impi’s were imminently approaching.  Stevenson was later arrested and his services dispensed with.[103]

Among the Native Levy’s serving on the border was a Levy Leader by the name of P. Stevens[104] who was arrested by Special Border Agent, John Eustace Fannin[105] and Commandant William Douglas Wheelwright[106] for attempting to murder a Native Headman whilst under the influence at Ngubane drift.[107]   Lieutenant and Adjutant, Thomas ‘Tom’ Sharp[108] 1st N.N.C., a former Sergeant Major of 1/1st N.N.C. and survivor of iSandlwana was arrested and charged with the theft of twelve Oxen from the Commissariat at Krantzkop on 4 September.  Sharp was found not-guilty by a jury but still had to endure the indignity of an arrest and a trial.[109]  Another colonial, Lieutenant J.J. Moran[110] 2/1st N.N.C. was in March 1879 relieved of his commission as he’d been continuously before a magistrate; he would meet many more magistrate’s in the coming years.[111]

Commandant P.J. Raaff and Captain Louis George Jullien[112] of the Transvaal Rangers were both denied the South African War Medal (S.A.W.M.) as the unit’s financial accounts were found to be unsatisfactory of which Jullien being the last commander of the unit was primarily at fault for abandoning the unit’s records. [113]  Raaff although officially denied a S.A.W.M. was appointed a Companion of St Michael and St George (C.M.G.) for his leadership and services during the war. Lieutenant Harry Stuart Webb[114] of the 1/2nd N.N.C. was also denied a S.A.W.M. medal that was recorded in the attestation book of the Natal Mounted Police in 1883:

‘Served as Lt in Native Contingent during Zulu War. Was refused a medal upon application on the grounds of misconduct nature of misconduct’. 

Webb although having been wounded at Nyezane on 22 January had been arrested at Lower Tugela and dismissed for misconduct in March, 1879.[115]

 

 

Honour’s and kudos

Undoubtedly at times there was a nexus between the colonial and imperial officers in relation to their personal perceptions of soldiering, leadership and the ability to recognize good work performed by each other including operational effectiveness and even bravery.  By the conclusion of the war these beliefs had somewhat been cast aside and for the most part a mutual respect had developed between both classes of officers.  Regimental Sergeant Major Frederick William Cheffins[116] of the Transvaal Rangers recalled in his diary that in May, 1879 when Lieutenant Colonel Buller was away on duty that Commandant P.J. Raaff was temporarily appointed as commander of the mounted troops which demonstrated that Raaff was now regarded as a competent leader by; an opinion that may not have been formed months earlier.[117]  According to Cheffins, Raaff was recorded to have stated in reference to imperial officers his views:

‘class-conscious, snobbish, usually badly trained, often inexperienced and inefficient, yet always incredibly brave, often stupidly so’. [118]

Housed in the South African Archives, there are a plethora of employment applications from colonial officers that are accompanied by testimonials from senior imperial officers, one example in relation to Captain Johannes Jacobus De Beer N.N.C. being:[119]

‘I am of the opinion that he is one of the very best officers I have met either in the regular army or out of it…..He possesses the great advantage of a perfect temper, a quality which has given him a superior power in the managing of men and others’. [120]  

Major Harcourt Mortimer,[121] 77th (The Duke of Cambridge’s) Regiment, Commanding Officer, 2nd N.N.C. was to record in his memoirs his appreciation of Captain Claude Arthur Bettington:[122] 

‘a natural soldier: smart, active in person, firm in action, sound in counsel…..later in the war raised a mounted regiment that did good service in the field as Bettington’s Horse’.[123]

Captain Robert Francis Vetch,[124] Shepstone’s Native Horse had been dismissed from the British Army in 1875 and by the close of the Zulu War had received a glowing testimonial from Major General Edward Newdigate:

‘Has proved himself to be a thoroughly gallant soldier on active service. He has been brought specially to my notice by Captain J. Shepstone his commanding officer’. ‘As a Captain and distinguishing himself by his bravery and coolness under fire’.[125] 

Two colonial officers received the Victoria Cross for valour during the campaign; Acting Commissariat Officer James Langley Dalton[126] for his gallantry and leadership during the defence of Rorke’s Drift on the 22/23 January and Captain H.C.D. D’Arcy of the F.L.H. for his cool actions on the 3 July on the White Mfolozi; he had previously performed deeds at Hlobane that some believed were worthy of the V.C.  Many others received mentions in despatches whilst C.M.G’s were conferred upon Captain’s, C.A. Bettington, Theophilus ‘Offy’ Shepstone[127] and as previously mentioned to Commandant P.J. Raaff. [128]

Padre George Smith[129] late of the Weenen Yeomanry who was prominent at Rorke’s Drift was permanently appointed to the British Army as was J.L. Dalton of the Commissariat Department.  Several officers received commissions in the Cape Mounted Rifles (C.M.R.) as a result of their Zulu War service, namely C.R.St.L Shervinton, the V.C. nomination for Eshowe, Henry Timson Lukin[130] of the N.N.C. and Captain’s H.C.D. D’Arcy V.C. and E.A.B. Blaine, both late of the F.L.H.

For one imperial officer serving among the colonials in the N.N.C., Captain H.C. Harford recorded the scene of his departure from the regiment with the greatest of sentiments that are testimony to the bond they forged together: 

‘The day of my departure was another memorable occasion in my existence, for just before starting I was presented by the assembled officers and N.C.O’s of the contingent with an illuminated Address, which I shall always consider the most precious of all my belongings. After the ceremony I was escorted by all who had mounts for eighteen miles to Sand Spruit store where, of course, I stood them all a good breakfast’.[131]

 

Conclusion

By the conclusion of military operations in September, 1879 some 672 Colonial officers had either served in Chelmsford’s. This number bore testimony to the need for such men to be appointed and ultimately brought invaluable local knowledge and experience to the field force. The British Commanders and Staff Officers also gained additional experience in the recruiting, appointing and leading of South African Colonial Officers that would provide them with a blueprint for future African campaigns.  

In the immediate years that followed, the Cape Colonial Government fought the BaSotho Gun War (1880-81) and recruited heavily men with previous experience in the Anglo-Zulu War.  In one such unit, Willoughby’s Horse, of the 15 Officers that were appointed no fewer than 11 had served in the Anglo-Zulu War; 8 as commissioned officers and 3 as other ranks.[132] Many others served with Bakers Horse, Leach’s Rifles, Transvaal Horse and in the various Native Levy’s during that campaign.

Apart from the BaSotho Gun War many former colonial officers would continue service with the Natal Volunteers.  Many joined the ranks as of the Natal Mounted Police, Cape Police, Cape Mounted Rifles or the Griqualand West Constabulary whilst several found their way into the British Army including, Lieutenant Cecil Poulett Mountjoy Weatherley[133] of the Border Horse who initially served as a Militia Officer and later as a Sergeant in the (Duke of Cambridge’s Own) Middlesex Regiment before receiving a regular commission.

Of the quartette that joined the C.M.R., Captain C.H.D. D’Arcy V.C. left the regiment in March 1881 to become a farmer and was soon reported missing in June, 1881 with his body being discovered some 6 months later.  D’Arcy had become a military celebrity and over the years there has been much speculation that he faked his own death or had turned to hard-drinking to mask the trauma of close combat during the Zulu War and during one of these drinking sessions killed himself.[134] Interestingly Captain, C.R.St.L. Shevington shot himself during a period of temporary insanity in 1898.

In what is now classed as post-traumatic stress disorder, clearly many colonial officers would have psychologically suffered in one way or another. At least four other such men are known to have encountered difficult times that may have been contributed too by their Zulu War service.  Lieutenant Heydon Charles Young[135] 2/3rd N.N.C. who had falsely reported his presence at iSandlwana later died in a Durban asylum;[136] Lieutenant Count Franz Von Hirschberg[137] 1/2nd N.N.C. also finished his days in an asylum in Bavaria.[138] Lieutenant Wallace Buchan Erskine[139] 1/1st N.N.C. was reported to have died in the Durban Central Gaol in 1901[140] whilst Captain Charles George Dennison,[141] the seasoned colonial campaigner had been bared from command in the Second Anglo-Boer War due to intemperance. [142]

As a group, the colonial officers who survived the campaign would scatter across the empire to mark their mark; to Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Hong Kong, Egypt and India. At least six men took part in exploration expeditions into the African interior[143] whilst others served again in the First Boer War 1880-81; Warren’s Bechuanaland Expedition 1884-85; Matabele War 1893, Matabelele and Mashonaland Rebellions 1896/97, Second Aglo-Boer War and the Bambatha Rebellion 1906. Incredibly, Lieutenant’s, Richard Earle Welby,[144] Frederick Hector Henry Munro Arden,[145] Brooke Southwell Greville and the C.P.M. Weatherley all served in the Great War. Lastly there was Alfred Lester Thring,[146] the Quarter Master of the Pietermaritzburg Rifles who was to be awarded the Dekoratie voor Trouwe Dienst (D.T.D.) for service as a Commando Leader in the Second Anglo-Boer War and also the Distinguished Service Order for service in German South West Africa in 1914-15; an exceedingly interesting career following his service in those troubled times of 1879 when all abled bodied colonials were called upon to serve in Zululand.

The story of the Colonial Officers in the Anglo-Zulu War is yet to be told in its entirety and although some individuals are illuminated from time-to-time, as a whole the subject remains to be one of the most enduring unknown elements of the Anglo-Zulu War.

Images: Wikipedia Public Domain

 

Bibliography

  1. Unpublished sources
  2. Cape Archives Repository, Cape Town
  3. Auditor’s Generals Department (AD)

AD 1-45: Monthly pay sheets, Queenstown Light Horse. 

AD 1-48: Monthly pay sheets, Frontier Armed and Mounted Police. 

AD 53-60: Monthly pay sheets, Forces in Basutoland and the Transkei.

AD 124-134: Monthly pay sheets, Forces in Basutoland and the Transkei.

  1. Colonial Office Papers (CO)

CO 4204 (D55, D64 & D66): Correspondence in relation to J.J. De Beer.

CO 4206 (S14 & S66): Correspondence in relation to C.R.St.L. Shervinton.

CO 4207 (V45): Correspondence in relation to R.F. Vetch.

CO 4208 (B7): Application from E.A. Birch to be employed in the Cape Civil Service.

CO 4218 (S11) & 4211 (S47): Correspondence in relation to Joseph Steiner.

  1. Defence Department (DD)

DD 1-272: Correspondence, Commandant General, Kafir & Zulu Wars 1878-1879.

  1. Government House Papers (GH)

GH 36-16: Military Secretaries correspondence, 1879 – 1880.

GH 1/438 (63): Correspondence in relation to Count Franz Von Hirschberg.

GH 1/440 (66): Correspondence in relation to Count Franz Von Hirschberg.

GH 123/30 (78): Correspondence in relation to Count Franz Von Hirschberg.

 

  1. Pietermaritzburg Archives Repository
  2. Accession Papers (ACC)

Wood Papers, ACC598, II/2/2: incoming letter 1878-9.

  1. Colonial Secretaries Office (CSO)

CSO (1878/5436); Officers, 2nd N.N.C. names for approval of appointments.

CSO (1879/4522); Clarification if Dr Birtwell is to proceed to the front.

CSO (1879/611); Application for P. Doyle to serve at the front.

CSO (1879/292); Magistrate H.F. Fynn in relation to J.L. Knight.

CSO (1879/2045): Captain W.E. Shepstone’s petition to be released from service.

CSO (1879/2115): Volunteers petition to be released from service.

CSO (1879/2046): Application of Lieutenant W.E. Robarts to be released from service.

  1. Master of the Supreme Court (MSCE)

MSCE (44/219): Estate File of H.C. Young.

MSCE (11/476): Estate File of W.B. Erskine.

  1. Natal Mounted Police (N.M.P)

NMP2: Natal Mounted Police attestation book c. 1879-1882.

  1. Registrars Office of Supreme Court (RSC)

RSC 01/01/2029 (23/1879): Thomas Sharp case file.

 

  1. National Archives, United Kingdom
  2. War Office Records (WO)

WO 32/7226: Reports in relation to Hlobane and Khambula and other actions.

WO 108/116: Correspondence in relation to the Second Anglo-Boer War 1899-1902.

WO 100 49: South African General Service Medal Roll, Colonials 1877-79.

WO 100 50: South African General Service Medal Roll, Colonials 1877-79.

 

  1. Other Published Documents

Intelligence Branch, Narrative of the Field Operations Connected with the Zulu War of 1879, Horse Guards, 1881

Laband J.P.C & Thompson P.S., War Comes To Umvoti: The Natal-Zululand Border, 1879,  Durban 1980.

Laband, John.P.C., Lord Chelmsford’s Zululand Campaign 1878-1879, Army Records Society, 1994.

Smith, Keith I., Local General Orders Relating to the Anglo-Zulu War 1879, , D.P. & G Military Publishers, Doncaster, 2005.

Smith, Keith I., Select Documents: A Zulu War Sourcebook, D.P. & G Military Publishers, Doncaster, 2006.

 

III: Newspapers and Periodicals

 

South African Library, Cape Town

Natal Witness, Pietermaritzburg 1878-9 (MP1222)

The Eastern Province Herald, Port Elizabeth, 1878-9 (MP1034)

The Standard Mail, Cape Town, 1879 (MP1119)

 

IV: Books and Compilations

Bengough, Harold Mortimer., Memories of a Soldier’s Life, Edward Arnold, London 1913.

Castle, Ian & Knight, Ian., Fearful Hard Times, The Siege and Relief of Eshowe, 1879, Greenhill Books, 1994.

D’Arcy, Patricia., What Happened to a VC, Dindalk Press, 1970.

Greaves, Adrian., Crossing the buffalo, the Zulu war of 1879, Cassell, 2005.

Harford, Henry., The Zulu War Journal, Pen & Sword 2014.

Holt, H.P., The Mounted Police of Natal, London 1913.

Jackson, F.W.D., Isandhlwana 1879, The Sources Re-Examined, South Wales Borderers and Monmouthshire Regimental Museum 1999.

Johnston R.E., Ulundi to Delville Wood, Maskew Miller, Ltd, Cape Town.

Jones, H.M., The Boiling Cauldron, Utrecht District and the Anglo-Zulu War, 1879, The Shermershill Press, Bisley, Gloucestershire, 2006.

Knight, Ian., Zulu Rising, The epic story of Isandlwana and Rorke’s Drift, Macmillan 2010.

Morris, Donald R., The Washing of the Spears. Sphere Books 1966.

Sole, Terry., For God, Queen and Colony; The Colonial Volunteer and Native Regiments in the Zulu War 1879, Token publishing, 2011.

Spencer, Shelagh O’Byrne., British Settlers; A Biographical Register in Natal 1824-1857, University of Natal Press 1987.

Struben, Roy., Taken at the Flood, The Story of Harry Struben, Longmans, South Africa 1968.

Thompson P.S., The Natal Native Contingent in the Anglo-Zulu War, South Africa, Government Printers 1997.

Tylden, Major G., The Armed Forces of South Africa, Trophy Press: Johannesburg, 1982.

 

V: Pamphlets, Thesis, Articles and Other Papers

Simpson, Cameron V., The Cape Colony and the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879, Anglo-Zulu War Historical Society 2015.

[1] The author has established an Excel database of all known colonial officers drawn from the South African General Service Medal Roll (WO100), Local General Orders and Muster Sheets held in the Cape Town and Pietermaritzburg, Archives Repositories.  For the purpose of this essay the term ‘Colonial Officer’ includes all locally commissioned officers regardless of place of birth or domicile address that served in the various colonial regiments and formations. 

[2]  The recent operational experience was in the Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War (1877-78); against Chief Pokwane (1878); Griquas (1878) and Chief Sekhukhune of the BaPedi (1878).

[3] Intelligence Branch, Narrative of the Field Operations Connected with the Zulu War of 1879, Horse Guards, 1881

[4]Laband, John P.C., Lord Chelmsford’s Zululand Campaign 1878-79. Army Record Society, 1994.

[5] Simpson, Cameron V., The Cape Colony and the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879. Anglo-Zulu War Historical Society 2015.

[6] ROWLAND Hugh V.C., K.C.B. (1828-1909); British Regular Soldier; Awarded the Victoria Cross as a Captain during the Crimean War in 1854; Commander, Transvaal Forces and Mounted Infantry Expert; Retired as a General in 1896.

[7] Laband, John P.C., Lord Chelmsford’s Zululand Campaign 1878-79, Army Record Society, 1994, p113

[8] Morris, Donald R., The Washing of the Spears. Sphere Books 1866, p520. The term meant that they were usually in a tree and away from the fighting.

[9] DARTNELL John George K.C.B. (1838-1913); Soldier, Farmer; Subaltern, 86th Foot 1855 -1858; Indian Mutiny including the capture of Chandaree; Mentioned-in-Despatches (1858); Captain 16th Regiment 1858; 27th Regiment 1862; Bhootan expedition 1865; Retired as a Brevet Major 1865; Farmer of Greytown Natal; Langalilabele Rebellion 1873; Raised and Commanded the N.M.P. 1874; Anglo-Zulu War 1879; First Anglo-Boer War 1880-81; Awarded the C.M.G. 1881; Brigadier General, Natal Volunteers, Second Anglo-Boer War 1899-1902; Created K.C.B. 1901; Bambatha Rebellion 1906.

[10] RUSSELL John Cecil (1839-1909); Captain, 12th Lancers; Second Ashanti Expedition 1873-74; Local Lieutenant Colonel & O.C., 1st Squadron, Mounted Infantry, Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Retired as a Brevet Lieutenant Colonel.

[11] Laband, John P.C., Lord Chelmsford’s Zululand Campaign 1878-79, Army Record Society, 1994, p64

[12] Knight, Ian., Zulu Rising, The epic story of Isandlwana and Rorke’s Drift, Macmillan 2010, p183 and Holt, H.P., The Mounted Police of Natal, London 1913.

[13] WOOD Henry Evelyn V.C., G.C.B., G.C.M.G. (1838-1919); Sailor, Soldier; Midshipman Royal Navy; Crimean War 1854-55; Cornet, 13th Light Dragoons 1855; Lieutenant, 17th Lancers 1858; Indian Mutiny being awarded the V.C. in 1858; Captain, 73rd Foot 1862; 17th Foot 1865; Major, 90th Light Infantry 1871; Ashanti War 1874; Lieutenant Colonel and C.O. 90th during the Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War 1877-78; O.C. No4 Column and Woods Flying Column, Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Brigadier General; First Anglo-Boer War 1880-81; Egypt 1882-85; Retired as a Field Marshal in 1904.

[14] Laband, John P.C., Lord Chelmsford’s Zululand Campaign 1878-79, Army Record Society, 1994, p119.

[15] SHEPSTONE Theophilus Sir K.C.M.G. (1817-1893); Native Affairs Civil Servant of the Cape Colony and Natal 1845-76; Administrator of the Transvaal 1877-79 .

[16] Cape Archives Repository, GH36-16.

[17] The known sons of British nobility and senior military officers were: Captain R.C.S. Drury-Lowe, Lonsdales Mounted Rifles, Lieutenant, F.W. Festing N.N.C., Lieutenant, C. Jameson N.N.C., Captain T.R. Hamilton Transvaal Rangers, Captain, G. Marshall N.L.H., Captain F.W. Brice NNC, Lieutenant Hon S.W.P. Vereker N.N.C., Captain C.D. Hay N.N.C., Lieutenant G.W. Heathcote N.N.C., Leader R.A Woolley Native Levy and Leader J.B. Woolley Native Levy.

[18] There were approximately 33 former British regular, militia or Naval officers recorded to have been serving as Colonial Officers during the Zulu War. Many of these had been residing in South Africa for many years and were dedicated colonists.

[19] Captain R.F. Vetch had been dismissed from the 20th Regiment in 1875 and Captain C.S. Maunsell, 82nd Regiment was arrested and dismissed for striking the Duke of Cambridge in 1874.

[20] Lieutenant F.B. Doveton N.N.C. was a Merchant Navy deserter whilst Lieutenant G.W. Heathcote N.N.C. was a Royal Navy deserter, had been charged with left in New South Wales and later found his way into the ranks of the 14th Hussars in India; his grandfather Sir William Heathcote wrote him out of the will. Lieutenant’s H. Maldon F.L.H. and F.W. Lane Natal Native Pioneers had both deserted from the Frontier Armed and Mounted Police (F.A.M.P.) in October, 1878 (Cape Archives Repository, AD 1-48) along with twelve other troopers. Lane was a former Lieutenant in the 2nd Gloucestershire Regiment (Militia) prior to joining the F.A.M.P.

[21] Captain Joseph Steiner 1/2nd N.N.C. was one such man. He had left his wife in London before he emigrated to the Cape Colony where he had served with Stevenson’s Horse in the Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War. Soon after the Zulu War his impatient wife wrote to the Colonial Office in search of her missing husband who she though was ‘out fighting’ again. Undeterred he continued to soldier on after the war until his wife divorced him in 1897. (Cape Archives Repository, CSO 4218 & 4211; see bibliography)

[22] Captain Harry Rawling Dymes 1/1st N.N.C. was an accountant turned soldier who after the Zulu War raised and commanded Dymes’ Rifles during the BaStho Gun War 1880-81 before finding his way back behind a desk in 1882.

[23] Known Crimean War veterans were: Lieutenant Colonel, F.A. Weatherley of the Border Horse, Commandant A.N. Montgomery, N.N.C., Captain W.M. Tollner N.N.C. and Lieutenant C.S. Maunsell N.N.C.

[24] Lieutenant Charles Jenkins had served as a boy sailor in the Royal Navy during the Baltic Sea operations.

[25] Commandant B.P. Lloyd of  the Weenen Yeomanry and Native Levy’s had served during the Indian Mutiny as did Major J.G. Dartnell of the N.M.P.  Captain J.A. Carr had also served in the ranks of the 10th Foot during the mutiny.

[26] Captain J.R.H. Lumley, Lonsdale’s Mounted Rifles had served with distinction during the Franco-Prussian War.

[27] Recorded Maori War veterans were; Lieutenant P. Cartwright N.N.C., Lieutenant V. McCracken N.N.C. and Captain H. Hutton F.L.H. Commandant G.H. Browne stated he was a Maori War veteran and whilst he did serve with the police in New Zealand there is no evidence that he served during the Maori Wars. Captain T.R. Hamilton of the Transvaal Rangers and C.A. Bettington NNC also served in New Zealand during this period and like Browne their actual Maori War service cannot be verified.

[28] Some 129 Colonial Officers are recorded to have served in the Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War 1877-78; 6 against the Griqua’s 1878, 26 against the BaPedi. Some officers had served in China, with Garibaldi in Italy and in earlier South African campaigns.

[29] LUMLEY John Rutherford Hickson (1849-1899); Private, Austrian Army 1870; Lieutenant, 1st Hanoverian Uhlan Regiment; Captain 13th Prussian Lancers; Franco-Prussian War 1870-71 including the cavalry action at Mars-la-Tout and awarded the Iron Cross; Captain and O.C. ‘D’ Troop, Lonsdale’s Mounted Rifles, Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Queens Foreign Service Messenger 1882-1899.

[30] HARFORD Henry Charles C.B. (1850-1937); Lieutenant, 99th Regiment 1870; Lieutenant and Adjutant, 3rd N.N.C., Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Captain, Wiltshire Regiment 1881; Major 1886; Lieutenant Colonel 1898; O.C. 62nd Regimental District 1902; O.C. Records, York District 1906; Retired as a Colonel 1907. 

[31] Harford, Henry., The Zulu War Journal, Pen & Sword 2014.

[32] BIRTWELL Daniel (1849- 1922); District Surgeon, Greytown Natal; Surgeon to Natal Hussars 1877.

[33] Pietermaritzburg Archives Repository, CSO (1879-4522).

[34] MANNING Claude; Trooper, Victoria Mounted Rifles; Lieutenant, 2/1st N.N.C. 1878 with commission cancelled; Trooper, Victoria Mounted Rifles, Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Lieutenant, 3rd N.N.C.; Lieutenant, Corps of Indians; Lieutenant, Lonsdale’s Mounted Rifles; Contractor of Mount Edgecombe c. 1884-1899.

[35] Smith, Keith I., Local General Orders Relating to the Anglo-Zulu War 1879, D.P. & G Military Publishers, Doncaster, 2005.

[36] GREVILLE Brook Southwell (1855-1948); Lieutenant, Westmeath Artillery (Militia) 1874; Trooper, Natal Mounted Police 1877; Natal Civil Service 1877-78; Lieutenant, 2/1st N.N.C., Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Resided in South Africa and India; Captain, Command and Staff (Embarkation Officer) 1914-19 being awarded the Belgian Ordre de Leopold – Chevalier (1921) for services in connection with the war; Honorary Kings Messenger 1919-31.

[37] Pietermaritzburg Archives Repository, CSO-708 (1879/2917). Greville was initially granted three months leave of absence from the Natal Civil Service and subsequently re-applied for an extension.

[38] DOYLE Philip (1838-Unknown); Wagon Maker of Pietermaritzburg; Gaoler, Unkomanzi Division 1868; Prospector, Diamond Fields 1871-72; Sergeant, Durban Borough Police 1876-77; Sworn Interpreter of Natal; Interpreter attached 17th Lancers, Anglo-Zulu War 1879. Following iSandlwana he wrote on 28 Jan 1879: ‘Under present circumstances I will be glad of anything that will take me to the front’. Resided Thornville c. 1882. He is most probably the same ‘P. Doyle’ who served as a Captain in the Corps of Guides during Warren’s Bechuanaland Expedition 1884-85.

[39] Pietermaritzburg Archives Repository, CSO-684 (1879/611).

[40] KNIGHT John Locke (1855-1924); Natal Civil Service 1876; Levy Leader, Native Levy, Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Sub-Commissioner of Zululand 1887; Commanded ‘Knights Entojaneni Levy’ during the Zulu disturbances of 1888 including action at Hlophekhulu 2.7.88; During the Second Anglo-Boer War he was the Magistrate of Nkandla and destroyed it prior to the Boers occupying it in 1900. Bambatha Rebellion 1906.

[41] Pietermaritzburg Archives Repository, CSO (1879/292) .

[42] Laband, John P.C., Lord Chelmsford’s Zululand Campaign 1878-79. Army Record Society, 1994, p118.

[43]  LONSDALE Rupert Latrobe C.M.G. (1849-1888); Lieutenant, 71st Foot 1868-74; Magistrate and Commandant, Keiskamahoek and Mfengu Levy; Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War 1877-78; Commandant, 3rd N.N.C., Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Raised and commanded Lonsdale’s Mounted Rifles 1879; Special Service Officer to Coomassie 1881-82; Levy Battalion Commander, Zulu Disturbances 1888.

[44] NETTLETON William John (1833-1897); Commissariat Department, Eight Eastern Cape Frontier War 1850-53; Captain, Queenstown Volunteers 1870, Commanding Officer, Port Elizabeth Volunteer Horse, Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War 1877-78; Commandant, 2/2nd NNC Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Commandant, Maseru Native Levy, BaSotho Gun War 1880-81.

[45] VON LINSIGEN Wilhelm Carl Ferdinand C.M.G. (1822-1880); Hanoverian Army Officer; Captain, British German Legion 1855; Farmer and Soldier, Eastern Cape 1856; Officer Commanding, No2 Company, Buffalo Volunteer Rifles, Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War 1877-78; Recruited European for the N.N.C., Anglo-Zulu War 1879; He declined command of an N.N.C. regiment in order to accepted a Superintendent’s position at the Breakwater prison; Commandant, BaSotho Gun War 1880 until he was killed in action alongside his 16 year old son on 14.11.1880 in a scene very reminiscent of the Uys and Weatherley family tragedies of fathers and sons being killed together.

[46] Cape Archives Repository, DD 1-272.

[47] GRAVES Shapland (1833-1919); Ensign 62nd Foot 1856; Ensign 3rd Foot 1857; Lieutenant 1859; Captain 1866; Major 1876; Protector of Immigrants, Natal 1877; O.C. 2rd N.N.C., Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Lieutenant Colonel 1881; C.O. The East Kent Regiment 1883-87.

[48] Pietermaritzburg Archives Repository, CSO-670 (1878/5436).

[49] HAYES Daniel Joseph (1855-1896); Sergeant, F.A.M.P. 1873–76 including service on the Northern Border in 1874; Sergeant, Colesburg Mounted Volunteers and Sergeant F.L.H., Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War 1877-78; Captain 1/3rd N.N.C. and Lonsdale’s Mounted Rifles, Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Captain, ‘B’ Troop, Lonsdale’s Rifles, BaSotho Gun War 1880-81; Sergeant Major, Cape Volunteers; Private, C.M.R. 1882-84; Trooper, Bechuanaland Border Police 1884-85; Corporal, Gwelo Volunteers, Ndebele Rebellion 1896.

[50] BROWNE George Hamilton (Hamilton-Browne) (1844-1916); He stated that he served briefly in the ranks of the Royal Artillery, Papal Zouaves, fought in the Maori Wars and against American Indians and Australian Bushrangers which is yet to be verified; Trooper, New Zealand Armed Constabulary 1872-75; Lieutenant, Pulleine’s Rangers and Transkei Rifles, Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War 1877-78; Commandant, 1/1st N.N.C. and Major Lonsdale’s Mounted Rifles, Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Lieutenant, Cape Town Volunteer Engineers, BaSotho Gun War 1880-81 cannot be verified; Captain, ‘C’ Squadron, 3rd Mounted Rifles, Warren’s Bechuanaland Expedition 1885; Lieutenant, Diamond Fields Horse (D.F.H.) 1887; Levy Battalion Commander, Zulu disturbances 1888; Adjutant, D.F.H. 1891; Major, Salisbury Horse, Ndebele War 1893; Umtali Volunteers, Ndebele Rebellion 1896 and Shona Rebellion 1897.

[51] DUNCOMBE Robert (1839-1898); Sergeant, Wodehouse True Blue’s, Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War 1877-78; Lieutenant, Lonsdale’s Mfengu Levy 1878; Mentioned-in-Despatches (1878); Captain, 1/3rd N.N.C., Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Captain, L.M.R.; Resided in Durban c. 1888.

[52] MURRAY Orlando Edward (1840-1879); Farmer of Fort White, Peddie District; Private, Fort White Mounted Volunteers c. 1876; Lieutenant 1877; Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War 1877-78; Captain, Kaffrarian Rangers 1878; Captain, 2/3rd N.N.C., Anglo-Zulu War 1879.

[53] HICKS George Robert Massey (Massey-Hicks) (1851 – 1901); Captain, Lonsdale’s Mfengu, Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War 1877-78 where he was present during pursuit of Sandile; Captain, 1/3rd N.N.C. and Lonsdale’s Mounted Rifles, Anglo-Zulu War 1879. His brother Lieutenant William Hicks also served with the N.N.C. as did his brother-in-law; Lieutenant Samuel Avery.

[54] Eastern Province Herald 7 February, 1879.

[55] Morris, Donald R., The Washing of the Spears. Sphere Books 1966, p328.

[56] Eastern Province Herald 7 February, 1879.

[57] HARBER Stephen Smith (1858-1950); Captain, Lonsdale’s Mfengu Levy 1878; Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War 1878; Lieutenant, Keiskamahoek Mfengu Levy 1878; Mentioned-in-Despatches 1878; Captain 1/3rd N.N.C., Anglo-Zulu War 1879; In 1880 he claimed for a pension due to wounds received at Ulundi; Field Cornet, Upper Mooi and Pot Rivers, Maclear District 1909; He celebrated his diamond Wedding anniversary in 1949.

[58] PURVIS Thomas (1842 – 1923); 2nd Dragoon Guards 1871; F.A.M.P. 1877-78 including the Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War 1877-78; Lieutenant, 1/3rd N.N.C.; Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Mason of Grahamstown.

[59] KROHN Robert Henry (1851-1879); Resided Panmure, Eastern Cape; Private, Buffalo Volunteer Regiment 1876; Sergeant (Clerk and Interpreter) to Lieutenant Colonel G. Brabant 1877-78; Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War 1877-78; Captain, 1/3rd N.N.C., Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Killed in action at iSandlwana 22.1.1879.

[60] VAINES Thomas; Trooper, Bowker’s Rovers 1877; Sergeant, Samson’s Horse 1877; Sergeant Major, Kaffrarian Rangers 1878; Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War 1877-78; Lieutenant, 1/3rd N.N.C., Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Captain and O.C. ‘A’ Troop, Landrey’s Horse, BaSotho Gun War 1880-81; His name is often spelt as ‘Vane’ or ‘Vanes’ but in his own hand during the Ninth Frontier War the pay sheets where signed off as ‘Vaines’.

[61] Harford, Henry.,  The Zulu War Journal, Pen & Sword 2014.

[62] Jackson, F.W.D., Isandhlwana 1879, The Sources Re-Examined, South Wales Borderers and Monmouthshire Regimental Museum 1999. The colonial officers that are recorded to have escaped are: Acting Commissariat Officer J.N. Hamer, H.Q. Staff, No2 Column; Lieutenant’s C. Raw, R.W. Vause, A.F. Henderson, H.D. Davies, Natal Native Horse; Quarter Master Dugald McPhail, Buffalo Border Guard; Lieutenant’s G.W. Adendorff, W.R. Higginson, T. Vaines 1/3rd N.N.C.; Lieutenant G.F. Andrews Natal Native Pioneers; Captain’s T.M.C. Nource, W.H. Stafford 1st N.N.C. and Lieutenant W.B. Erskine 1st N.N.C.; There was the suggestion that Captain D.M. Smythe was present at iSandlwana however it is believed he was at Krantzkop at the time.

[63] STRUBEN Hendrik Wilhelm (1840-1915); Farmer, Politician, Businessman, Witwatersrand Pioneer and Author; Member of the Z.A.R. Volksraad; Operations against the BaPedi 1878; Transport Officer, Anglo-Zulu War 1879.     

[64] SHEPSTONE George John Palmer (1849-1879); Corporal, Natal Carbineers, Shepstone’s escort to the Coronation of Cetshwayo kaMapande 1873; Langalilabele Rebellion 1873 including the action at Bushman’s Pass; Captain, 1st N.N.C. 1878; Political Assistant to Lieutenant Colonel A.W. Durnford R.E. and attached to the Staff of No2 Column, Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Killed in action at iSandlwana 1879; Son of Sir Theophilus Shepstone.

[65] Struben, Roy., Taken at the Flood, The Story of Harry Struben, Longmans, South Africa 1968.

[66] Thompson P.S., The Natal Native Contingent in the Anglo-Zulu War, South Africa, Government Printers 1997.

[67] Those who’s conduct has been in question and heavily debated by historians are; Captain, W. Stevenson, Lieutenant’s G.W. Adendorff , W.R. Higginson, A.F. Henderson and H.C. Young.

[68] PARR Henry Hallam K.C.B., C.M.G. (1847-1914); Soldier and Author; Ensign 1865; Lieutenant 13th Foot 1869; Military Secretary to Sir Bartle Frere 1877; Captain 1878; Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War 1878; Attached to No3 Column as a Staff Officer, Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Resumed duties after the iSandlwana campaign; Some of his Anglo-Zulu War correspondence is housed among the Government House records in the Cape Archives Repository (GH36-16); First Anglo-Boer War 1880-81; Egypt 1882 & 1885; Major 1885; Brevet Colonel 1886; Major General 1899; Retired 1906.

[69] Cape Archives Repository GH36-16. Captain H. Hallam-Parr; Staff, No3 Column, January – February 1879.

[70] PEARSON Charles Knight K.C.M.G., C.B. (1834-1909); Ensign 99th Foot 1852; 31st Foot 1853; Lieutenant 1855; Crimean War 1855; Captain 1856; 3rd Foot 1857; Major 1865; Lieutenant Colonel & C.O. 3rd Foot 1867; O.C. No1 (Coastal) Column, Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Major General 1883; Lieutenant General 1891.

[71] Smith, Keith I., Select Documents: A Zulu War Sourcebook, D.P. & G Military Publishers, Doncaster, 2006. Page’s 196 & 197.

[72] SHERVINTON Charles Robert St Leger (1852-1898); Officer Cadet, Royal Navy; Officer Cadet, R.M.A. Woolwich; Trooper, 20th Hussars c. 1873; Drill Instructor, F.A.M.P. and attached to Chalumna Mounted Volunteers; Lieutenant, Pulleine’s Rangers, Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War 1877-78; Captain 1878; Captain, 2/2rd N.N.C. & Adjutant 5th N.N.C., Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Captain, ‘Left’ Wing, C.M.R. 1880; BaSotho Gun War 1880-81; Adjutant C.M.R. 1881; Acting C.O. C.M.R. in BaSotho 1881; Resigned C.M.R. 1884; Colonel, Malagasy Army 1885; Special Correspondent in Johannesburg, Jameson Raid 1895/96. 

[73] Most probably, Private William Brooks (No2145). Brooks was entitled to the S.A.W.M. medal with clasp ‘1879’.

[74] Cape Archives Repository CO4206 (S14 & S66). 

[75] Intelligence Branch, Narrative of the Field Operations Connected with the Zulu War of 1879, Horse Guards, 1881. Casualties tabulated on pages 160 & 161.

[76] BULLER Redvers Henry V.C., G.C.B., G.C.M.G. (1839-1908); Ensign 60th Rifles 1858; China War 1860; Captain; Red River Expedition 1870; Ashanti Operations 1873-74; Brevet Major; Staff Officer & C.O. F.L.H., Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War 1878; Operations against the BaPedi 1878; Lieutenant Colonel, O.C. Mounted Troops, No4 Column, Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Staff Officer, First Anglo-Boer War 1880-81; Egypt 1882; Major General 1885; Lieutenant General 1891; General 1896; G.O.C. Natal Field Force 1899, Second Anglo-Boer War 1899-1900; Retired 1901.

[77] Cape Archives GH36-16.

[78]  HOOK Charles James; Captain, 2nd Battalion, Woods Irregulars, Anglo-Zulu War 1879. He was later the Interpreter to both Battalions of Wood’s Irregulars.

[79] RAAFF Pieter Johannes C.M.G. (1849-1893); Gunner, Free State Artillery, BaSotho Gun War 1865; Lieutenant, Middleburg Volunteers 1878, Lydenburg Rifles, Operations against the BaPedi 1878. Captain & Commandant, Transvaal (Raaff’s) Rangers; Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Defence of Potchefstroom, First Anglo-Boer War 1880-81; Military Adviser to Chief Tshipane 1884; Commandant, Raaff’s Column, Matabele War 1893; Died from malaria whilst on operations 1893.

[80] D’ARCY Henry Cecil Dudgeon V.C. (1850-1882); Clerk of Grahamstown 1877; Private, Albany Mounted Volunteers & Lieutenant, F.L.H., Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War 1879; Operations against the BaPedi 1878; Captain, F.L.H., Anglo-Zulu War 1879 including command of the F.L.H. after the action at Khambula; Captain, C.M.R. 1880-81; Farmer of Stutterheim c. 1882 when he went missing only to be found dead months later. There has been many ‘Lord Lukin’ type theories about he death being faked although it is generally believed he took his own life.

[81] BLAINE Alfred Edmund Bousfield (1853-1905); Private, Bowker’s Rovers & Lieutenant, F.L.H., Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War 1877-78; Mentioned-in-Despatches 1878; Operations against the BaPedi 1878; Captain, F.L.H., Anglo-Zulu War 1879; He was acting C.O, F.L.H. during the action at Ulundi 4.7.79; Mentioned-in-Despatches 1879; Lieutenant Colonel R.H. Buller V.C., C.B. wrote to Blaine on 28.7.79: ‘I told Major Dartnell the other day, that I thought you about the best officer who served under me, and if you continue in your determination to stick to soldiering as I hope you will…..wishing you luck any way’; Captain, C.M.R. 1880-1900; BaSotho Gun War 1880-81; Local Major, East Griqualand Field Force and Captain, Prince of Wales Light Horse, Second Anglo-Boer War 1899-1902; ‘B’ Squadron Eastern Rifles 1905; Mine Manager of the Transvaal. He accidentally drowned in a mine dam on 23.12.1905. 

[82] SMITH Archibald Metcalfe (1858-1889); Gentleman; Sub-Lieutenant, 5th West York Militia 1876; Lieutenant, F.L.H., Anglo-Zulu War 1879; At Hlobane he was not only mentioned-in-despatches by Lieutenant Colonel R.H. Buller but was the officer that Major W.K. Leet saved and resulted in Leet being awarded the Victoria Cross; Smith was to be nominated for a regular imperial commission in the British Army however he got drunk in the field and disgraced himself to the extent that Colonel H.E. Wood had him dismissed from the regiment the very next day; resided in London c. 1883.

[83] WILSON William Dunsterville (1857-1891); Gentleman; Sergeant, Baker’s Horse, Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War 1877-78; Operations against the Griquas 1878; Lieutenant, Baker’s Horse, Anglo-Zulu war 1879.

[84] WHITE Thomas Lorraine (1848-1920); Lieutenant, Lydenburg Volunteer Corps (Z.A.R.) 1876; Operations against the BaPedi; Lieutenant, Stockenstroom Levy 1878 and Captain, Hottentot Militia, Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War 1878 including the action at Debe Nek; Lieutenant, Kaffrarian Rifleman (Vanguard), Captain 2/2nd N.N.C. and 2nd Battalion, Wood’s Irregulars, Anglo-Zulu War 1879; He Commanded both Battalion’s of Wood’s Irregulars at Ulundi 4.7.79; Mentioned-in-Despatches (1879); Emigrated to the U.S.A. in 1882 and wrote several articles on South Africa.  

[85] BRECHER Barnabas Gerhard (1851-1922); Lieutenant and Adjutant, Wood’s Irregulars, Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Lieutenant, Swazi Contingent, Operations against the BaPedi 1879; Fought with a Transvaal Commando, First Anglo-Boer War 1880-81; Led a filibuster force to found a new republic 1884; Transvaal Politician; Burgher, Transvaal Commando’s, Second Anglo-Boer War 1899-1902.

[86] National Archives,W032/7726.

[87] LUCAS Gould Arthur (1832-1914); Ensign, 73rd Foot 1850; He was a survivor of the Birkenhead and was prominent in assisting in saving the women and children 1852; Lieutenant 1852; Eight Eastern Cape Frontier War 1852-53; Captain 1857; Magistrate of the Natal Civil Service 1859; Co-founder of Hilton College 1872; Langalilabele Rebellion 1873; Commandant, Defence District NoVI, Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Chief Magistrate of Durban; Retired to England 1897.

[88] WOOLLEY Robert Andrew (1847-1932); Cadet, R.M.C. Sandhurst; Ensign, 20th Foot 1865; Lieutenant 1869; A.D.C. to Governor and Commander-in-Chief Mauritius 1871. Retired to Natal 1872; Justice of the Peace, Alfred County 1875; Levy Leader, Defence District NoVI, Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Resided Brighton, England.

[89] SHEPSTONE William Edward (1841-1892); Lawyer and Advocate of Durban; Partner of ‘Shepstone & Wylie’; Lieutenant, D.M.R. 1873; Captain & O.C. D.M.R. 1874; In 1874 he was recorded to have been the best shot in the regiment; Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Although he left the regiment in the field on at least one occasion for business reasons he returned to Durban with the them in August, 1879; Father, Sir Theophilus Shepstone.

[90] Pietermaritzburg Archives Repository; CSO 2045/1879.  Captain W.E. Shepstone’s application was counter-signed by five other Natal Volunteer officers including Captain Phillip Norton of the Natal Hussars.

[91] SANER Charles (1842-1899); Farmer of Verulam, Natal; Captain & OC, VMR 1877 (By election); Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Mine Manger of Van Rhyn Estates.

[92] Pietermaritzburg Archives Repository; CSO 2115/1879. Captain C.T. Saner’s petition was signed by every member of the VMR inkling Lieutenant W.E. Robarts who had submitted a personal application.

[93] ROBARTS William Emery (1847-1903); Town Surveyor of Durban; Lieutenant, VMR 1878; Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Mayor of Durban, 1887-88.

[94] Pietermaritzburg Archives Repository; CSO 2046/1879.

[95] MITCHELL Hugh Bullen Hugh G.C.M.G. (1836-1899); Ensign, Royal Marines Light Infantry 1852; Baltic operations 1854-56; Retired as a Lieutenant Colonel 1878; Colonial Service 1878; Colonel Commandant, Pietermaritzburg, Anglo-Zulu War; Governor, Fiji, Governor of Natal and Zululand 1881; Governor, Straits Settlement 1894.

[96] CHRISTIAN Ewan John (1845-1898); Ensign, 25th Foot 1862; Lieutenant 1869; 91st Foot 1869; Sold his commission 1872; Cornet, Westmoreland and Cumberland Yeomanry 1872; Lieutenant; Trooper, F.L.H., Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War 1878; Lieutenant, F.L.H.; Operations against the BaPedi 1878; Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Galloper to Colonel Baker Russell, BaPedi operations 1879 and Mentioned-in-Despatches; Captain & Adjutant, 3rd Cape Mounted Yeomanry 1880;  BaSotho Gun War 1880-81; Staff Officer, Mafeteng 1881; Cape Police 1885; Commissioner of Police, Kimberley; Cab Company owner of London 1891; Mine Agent of Mexico 1890’s.

[97] BIRCH Ernest Augustus (1856-Unknown); Private, First Detachment, Prince Alfred’s Own Volunteer Rifles, Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War 1877-78 including the action at Quintana 7.2.78; Lieutenant, 1/2nd N.N.C. & 5th N.N.C., Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Resided in Pretoria c. 1902.

[98] Cape Archives Repository, CO4208 (B7).

[99] AVERY Samuel (Unknown – 1879); Resided King William’s Town c. 1872; Lieutenant, 1/3rd N.N.C., Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Killed in action at iSandlwana 22.1.879. Not much is known about Avery, however he was the brother-in-law of Captain G.R. Massey-Hicks 1/3rd N.N.C. and left a personal estate that was valued at less that £40. His widow married a further three times.

[100] HOLCROFT Francis James ‘Frank’ (1853-1879); Article Clerk of ‘Wade & Knocker’, Essex; Lieutenant, 1/3rd N.N.C., Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Killed in action at iSandlwana 22.1.879.

[101] The Standard Mail, 11 February 1879: Lieutenant H.C. Harford in his journal was a little more diplomatic in his explanation: ‘Two young officers, Lieutenants Avery and Holcraft, went off without leave, evidently to ride back to camp, but were never seen or heard of again’.

[102] STEVENSON William; Resided King William’s Town; Captain, 2/3rd N.N.C., Anglo-Zulu War 1879; There were two William Stevenson’s residing in King William’s Town who were father and son; He is most probably, William Stevenson, Junior (1850-1910).

[103] Smith, Keith I., Local General Orders Relating to the Anglo-Zulu War 1879, D.P. & G Military Publishers, Doncaster, 2005.

[104] STEVENS Phillip John; Levy Leader, Defence District NoVII, Anglo-Zulu War 1879; He was charged with attempted murder. 

[105] FANNIN John Eustace (1834-1905); Surveyor of Pietermaritzburg; Special Border Agent, Umvoti and Commander & O.C. Border Police, Anglo-Zulu War 1879 receiving special thanks from the Government for his services; Natal Civil Service serving as a member of the Special Judicial Commission for the trial on Zulu Chiefs in 1888.

[106] WHEELWRIGHT William Douglas (1847-1924); Natal Civil Servant; Langalilabele Rebellion 1873; Resident Magistrate, Umvoti 1878; Colonial Commandant, Defence District NoVII, Anglo-Zulu War 1879; British Resident, Zululand 1879-1880.

[107]  Laband J.P.C & Thompson P.S., War Comes To Umvoti: The Natal-Zululand Border, 1879, Durban 1980 Page 34.

[108] SHARP Thomas; Butcher of Pietermaritzburg; Sergeant Major, 1/1st N.N.C. & Lieutenant and Adjutant, 1st N.N.C., Anglo-Zulu War 1879; He left an account of his experiences at iSandlwana which was dated 21.3.79.

[109]  Pietermaritzburg Archives Repository, RSC 01/01/2029 (23/1879).

[110] MORAN John J. (Aka John Thompson); Acting Commissariat at Fort Weber, Transvaal, BaPedi operations 1878; Lieutenant, 2/1st N.N.C., Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Services dispensed with 16.1.79. Not much is known about Moran who assumed the name of John Thompson was often before Natal Magistrates as late as 1892.

[111] The Natal Witness, 25 March 1879: ‘Mr J.G. Moran (sic) late of the N.N.C but who has been relieved of his commission, has been several times before the Magistrate for preliminary enquiry into certain changes brought against him for falsity. In default of bail, the accused had been obliged to go to gaol since the 10th instant. On 1.5.79 The Natal Witness further recorded he was to be committed to trial.

[112] JULLEIN Louis George; Adjutant, French Army; Captain of Cavalry with Garibaldi’s Italian campaign 1848; Business proprietor, Pietermaritzburg c. 1869; Captain & Adjutant, Transvaal (Raaff’s) Rangers, BaPedi operations 1878; Anglo-Zulu War 1879; During the Anglo-Zulu War he was recorded to have actively recruited in Kimberley; Lieutenant & Quarter Master, Willoughby’s Horse, BaSotho War 1880-81 during which he clashed with another officer and was arrested albeit not at fault; In 1881 from Aliwal North he applied for a military  position with the Cape Government and claimed  he was a transport operator, was known to Lieutenant General Sir Garnet Wolseley, could speak Dutch, German and French.  

[113] National Archives, WO100/49; S.A.W.M. rolls, page 168 and Sole, Terry., For God, Queen and Colony; The Colonial Volunteer and Native Regiments in the Zulu War 1879, Token publishing 2011.

[114] WEBB Harry Stuart (1860-1921); Private, Queenstown Light Horse, Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War 1878; Cape Police, 5 years; Lieutenant, 1/2nd N.N.C., Anglo-Zulu War 1878; Dismissed 31.3.79; Natal Mounted Police 1882, being discharged for misconduct; Resided Grahamstown; Clerk, Cape Government Railways; Corporal, Rimington’s Guides and Agent, Field Intelligence Department, Second Anglo-Boer War 1899-1902.

[115] Pietermaritzburg Archives Repository, NMP-2.

[116] CHEFFINS Frederick William (1853-Unknown); First Mate, Merchant Navy; Regimental Sergeant Major, Transvaal (Raaff’s) Rangers; Anglo-Zulu War 1879.

[117] Sole, Terry., For God, Queen and Colony; The Colonial Volunteer and Native Regiments in the Zulu War 1879, Token publishing 2011. Page 404.

[118] Ibid.

[119] DE BEER Johannes Jacobus; Lieutenant & Quarter Master, Wodehouse True Blues; Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War 1877-78; Captain, 1/2nd N.N.C. and 4th N.N.C., Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Late in 1879 he volunteered his services to serve on the Northern Border and cited his address as being C/o the Reverend De Beer of Simons Town.

[120] Cape Archives Repository, CO4204 (D55, D64 & D66).

[121] BENGOUGH Harcourt Mortimer K.G.B. (1837-1922); Ensign, 77th Regiment 1855; Crimean War 1855; Lieutenant 1855; Captain 1864; Brevet Major 1877; Brevet Lieutenant Colonel 1879; C.O. 2/1st N.N.C. & 2nd N.N.C., Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Colonel 1883; Burmah War 1886; Major General 1893; Retired 1898.

[122] BETTINGTON Claude Arthur C.M.G. (1842-1880); Drummer, British Army; Trooper, New Zealand Armed Constabulary; Detective, New Zealand c. 1877; Lieutenant, 2/1st N.N.C., Captain, 1st N.N.C. & O.C. No3 Troop, (Bettington’s) Natal Horse, Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Awarded the C.M.G. and Mentioned-in-Despatches (1879); Assistant Inspector, Gold Coast c. 1880.

[123] Bengough, Harold Mortimer., Memories of a Soldier’s Life, Edward Arnold, London 1913. Page 107. He further wrote (Page 108): Of the other officers of the battalion I remember with grateful appreciation of loyal service always readily rendered, Captain W.T. Openshaw, Captain E.H. Boord, Captain Worthington, Captain Highton, Captain Speirs, Captain Vetch, Captain Willoughby, Lieutenants J.R. Galley, G.W. Heathcote, A.A. Worsley, G. Tyrell, B. Southwell Granville (sic) and others whose names, I regret, I am unable to recall.

[124] VETCH Robert Francis (1849-1887); Ensign, 20th Foot 1867; Lieutenant 1870; Dismissed 1875; Superintendent, Railway Workmen, Natal 1878; Captain, 2/1st N.N.C. & Shepstone’s Native Horse, Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Captain, Baker’s Horse, BaSotho Gun War 1880-81; Major and C.O. Baker’s Horse 1881; Commandant, Abalondolozi Contingent, 1881; Major & O.C., Forces in East Griqualand 1881-82; Joined Stanley’s Congo expedition; Employee of the National African Company, West Africa. 

[125] Cape Archives Repository, CO4207 (V45).

[126] DALTON James Langley V.C. (1833-1887); Private, 85th Regiment 1849; Corporal 1853; Sergeant 1855; Corporal, Commissariat Staff 1862; Sergeant 1863; Colour Sergeant 1863; Quarter Master Sergeant 1866; Army Service Corps 1870; Staff Sergeant; Commissariat Staff Corps 1870; Red River Expedition 1870; Discharged 1871; Resided Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony; Acting Assistant Commissary 1877, Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War 1877-78 including the defence of Ibeka; Acting Commissary Officer, Natal 1878, Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Awarded the V.C. and appointed a Sub-Assistant Commissary Officer in the British Army, back dated to 13.12.77; Quarter Master, Commissariat & Transport Staff 1880 but the appointment was cancelled; Resided Port Elizabeth.

[127] SHEPSTONE Theophilus ‘Offy’ C.M.G. (1843-1907); Captain, Natal Carbineers 1870; O.C. Natal Carbineers and Commandant, BaSotho Contingent, Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Pioneer of Swaziland.

[128] Pietermaritzburg Archives Repository, Wood Papers (A598).

[129] SMITH George (1845-1918); Volunteer, Langalilabele Rebellion 1873; Honorary Chaplain, Mooi River Troop, Weenen Yeomanry 1877; Chaplain, Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Chaplain, British Army, Egypt 1882; Sudan 1884; Retired 1905. 

[130] LUKIN Henry Timson K.C.M.G., D.S.O. (1860-1925); Lance Corporal, 53rd Regiment; Lieutenant, Natal Native Pioneers & 2nd N.N.C., Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Lieutenant, C.M.R. 1881; BaSotho Gun War 1880-81; Langberg operations 1896/97; O.C., Colonial Division Artillery and C.M.R., Second Anglo-Boer War 1899-1902; Colonel, German South West Africa Operations 1914-15; Brigadier General, G.O.C. 1st South African Brigade; Major General & G.O.C. 9th Division (B.E.F.) 1916; 64th Division 1918. 

[131] Harford, Henry.,  The Zulu War Journal, Pen & Sword 2014.

[132] Cape Archives Repository, Auditor Generals Department (AD53-60 & AD124-134).

[133] WEATHERLEY Cecil Poulett Mountjoy F.R.C.S. (1860-1932); Transvaal Civil Service 1878; Lieutenant, Border Horse, Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Operations against the BaPedi 1879; Lieutenant, Monaghan Militia 1881; Lieutenant, 5th Battalion, Royal Irish Rifles 1883; Sergeant, Middlesex Regiment 1883-84; Lieutenant, South Staffordshire Regiment 1884; Nile Expedition 1885; Adjutant 1889; Resigned 1891; Explorer of the Nile and Upper Sudan; Resided Mashonaland 1895; Continued exploring and took part in many safari’s in Africa; Captain, Buckinghamshire Yeomanry 1914; Seunusi campaign, Egypt 1915-16; Attached to the Australian Imperial Forces 1917; Liaison Officer attached to French Army 1918-20.

[134] D’Arcy, Patricia., What Happened to a VC, Dindalk Press, 1970.

[135] YOUNG Heydon Charles (1856-1912); Private, F.A.M.P. 1875-77; Lieutenant, 2/3rd N.N.C., Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Young made claims that he fought along side his younger brother, Lieutenant, Lonsdale Denoon Young, 2/3rd N.N.C. until he was killed and later gave an account that was published in the newspapers which was later refuted; Interestingly in GH36-16; Colonel W. Bellair’s wrote to Sir Bartle Frere at 2am 23.1.79 in relation to the arrival of Lieutenant H.C. Young 2/3rd N.N.C. at Mooi River; ‘Lieut Young of Lonsdales Contingent has, since the above was written, come in. He left the General’s Camp yesterday morning about 15 miles the other side of the river. All was well then’. Amalgamator of Durban, Trooper, Johannesburg Mounted Rifles (No497) 1901, Second Anglo-Boer War.

[136] Pietermaritzburg Archives Repository, MSCE 44/219.

[137] VON HIRSCHBERG Franz Count (Aka, Count Francois De Hirschberg) (1828-After 1887); Sergeant, 5th Light Infantry, British German Legion 1855; 2nd Regiment, German Military Settlers, Kaffraria 1856; Gentleman Cadet 1857; 3rd Regiment, German Military Settlers; Discharged 1861; Gaoler, Queenstown 1869; Sergeant, Wodehouse True Blues, Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War 1877-78; Lieutenant, 1/2nd N.N.C. & 4th N.N.C., Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Trooper, Kimberley Horse, BaSotho Gun War 1880-81; Riding Master, Cape Forces 1882-83; He was reported to have returned to Bavaria leaving his family in the Cape and was admitted to a lunatic asylum in Munich with ‘an incurable disease of the mind’. His family in Bavaria lobbied the Imperial Government for the costs to be covered as he’d lost his German citizenship because he was away for so many years; his family stated they made no claim on his S.A.W.M. when asked by Government House in Cape Town.    

[138] Cape Archives Repository, GH1/438 (63), GH1/440 (66) & GH123/30 (78).

[139] ERSKINE Wallace Buchan (1858-1901); Lieutenant, 1/1st N.N.C., Anglo-Zulu War 1879; He escaped iSandlwana and was wounded when doing so; Clerk, Natal Civil Service c. 1887; In 1889 he was reported for misconduct by the Resident Magistrate, Lower Tugela. His brother, Trooper, Robert Henry Erskine of the Natal Carbineers was killed at Bushman’s Pass in 1873.

[140] Pietermaritzburg Archives Repository, MSCE 11/476.

[141] DENNISON Charles George D.S.O. (1844-1932); Burgher, Free State Commando, BaSotho Gun War 1865; Trooper, Bloemfontein Rangers; O.C. Rustenburg Rifles 1876; O.C. Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek, Presidents Bodyguard; Captain, Border Horse, Anglo-Zulu War 1879; C.O. Border Horse, BaPedi operations 1879; Captain, Stellaland Light Horse, Langberg operations 1896/97; Major & O.C. Dennison’s Scouts, Field Intelligence Department & Major (2ic), Western Light Horse, Second Anglo-Boer War 1899-1902.

[142] National Archives, WO108/116. Dennison had offered to raise an irregular regiment however Lord Kitchener declined the offer as he felt he couldn’t raise 100 men and his drinking was a major problem. He was appointed Second-in-Command of the Western Light Horse in March, 1902 and was subsequently awarded a D.S.O. (L.G. 31.10.02) for his services during the war; a situation handled well that saved Dennison grave embarrassment. 

[143] Apart from C.P.M. Weatherley, Captain W.G. Parminter, Bakers Horse, Captain R.F. Vetch, N.N.C., Commandant R.L. Lonsdale, N.N.C., Captain F.H. Berry, F.L.H. and Captain, C.A. Bettington N.N.H. all ventured into other parts of Africa.

[144] WELBY Richard Earle (1854-1932); Trooper, Bowker’s Rovers & Lieutenant, Frontier Mounted Rifleman, Ninth Eastern Cape Frontier War 1877-78; Lieutenant, 5th N.N.C., Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Lieutenant, Maseru Native Levy, BaSotho Gun War 1880-81; Captain 1881; Police Constable, Tongaat Natal 1889; Captain, 5th Battalion, Rifle Brigade (Militia) 1896; Captain, (Special Reserve Officer) 3rd Battalion, The Suffolk Regiment 1914; Retired from ill health at the front 1918.

[145] ARDEN Frederick Hector Henry Munro (1853-1936); Lieutenant, Middlesex Yeomanry 1873; Lieutenant, Natal Light Horse, Anglo-Zulu War 1879 being present at Ulundi 4.7.79; On 16.7.79 a journalist recorded: ‘A curious incident happened at the battle of Ulundi. After the battle was over Lieutenant Arden of the Natal Light Horse, was out looking for some assegais, when in some long grass, over which the Gatling guns had been firing, a buck started up and went away, without being hurt, having been there during the battle’; Honorary Major, Middlesex Yeomanry 1889; Major, Special Staff, 1915; Served briefly in France c. May 1917.

[146] THRING Alfred Lester D.S.O., D.T.D. (1857-1939); Quarter Master, Pietermaritzburg Rifles, Anglo-Zulu War 1879; Resided in Kroonstad, Orange Free State; Served with the Kroonstad Commando during the siege of Kimberley 1899-1900; Veldt Cornet, Thring’s Commando c. 1900-1901; Major, Vrijstaatse Schutters (1st Regiment) 1914; German South West Africa operations 1914-15; Lieutenant Colonel; Author of Seven Months on Commando.

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